The Leader should take charge. If the Leader is injured, then the Deputy Leader should take his/ her place.
The other members must obey instructions and work together as a team to overcome the danger or crisis.
The Leader's Responsibilities In A Crisis:
Assess and monitor the situation. Never panic or act hastily. Evacuate the group from the place of danger immediately, and try to minimize the threat to the injured and fellow group members (including yourself).
Diagnose the Injury and Perform First Aid
If the Injured is Conscious
Ask the victim where it hurts. Examine the affected area and treat as required.
If the wound is bleeding, stop the bleeding immediately. Protect the wound with clean dressing and fasten with bandage.
If the Injured is Unconscious
Top priority is to help the injured breathe. Check if the respiratory canal is clear. If the injured has stopped breathing, perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation immediately.
Check the victim's temperature, pulse and pupils carefully.
If there is bleeding, stop it immediately before continuing with a thorough examination.
If there is more than one victim, the first aid officer must make a swift decision to first treat the one in greatest need. The other victims will be tended to later. If there is only one first aid officer, he/she can place all unconscious victims in a recovery position to treat them in turn.
What to Do with the Victims
Place the injured in a sheltered place, or preferably a well-ventilated building. If necessary, make a shelter.
Make the injured comfortable. Give him/her a drink with sugar, and help them put on extra warm clothing.
If there is sign of a bone fracture, don't move the injured. Give him/her extra clothing and a warm drink to maintain adequate body temperature.
If the victim is unconscious, or is injured in the head, chest or abdomen, don't give him/her any drink. Call for help immediately.
What to Do with the Other Members
The Leader must steady and comfort fellow members, to help avoid panic and to guide them in first aid and looking after the injured.
When injury occurs, change the hiking plan. Never leave the victim to continue your journey.
How to Call for Help
If it is necessary to leave the injured behind in the wild, make sure he/she is lent safely against a rock or a tree so there is no chance of further fall. This is particularly important if the victim is unconscious.
Use a map or the nearest distance post to locate yourself to facilitate the rescue.
Leave a torch or a whistle with the victim to attract rescuers' attention and to help confirm his/her location. Cover the victim with a bright coloured garment to help rescuers find him/her. Or hang some bright coloured garment from a nearby rock or tree, facing the way rescuers will probably approach from.
If the other members are not injured, the leader should send two people to the nearest police guard point, country park rangers' station or emergency service telephone. Pick two calm and organized members who can make rational decisions for this assignment.
How to Call For Help
When in distress, send a signal with a whistle or torch. Make 6 consecutive long blasts with your whistle (or call out loud or flash your torch). Stop for 1 minute, then repeat the process.
To send a SOS signal : 3 short blasts, 3 long blasts followed by 3 short blasts. The rescuers' reply signal: A series of 3 long blasts, followed by 1 minute's pause, then another series of 3 long blasts.
Your survival kit should be a small box with life-saving items. The box is usually made of tin, for example, a chocolate tin. Items inside include:
Mirror: To reflect sunlight to attract attention. A mirror is best, but if it breaks the back of a tin lid can also be used.
Matches or phosphorous pellets: To make a fire for cooking (match heads must be sealed with wax).
Magnesium pellets: Burning magnesium pellets will generate strong light for a few seconds. This is mainly for SOS purpose. Given the very short life of the magnesium pellets light, think carefully before using them.
Needles, threads: To mend torn clothes (threads must be at least 1m long).
Small scissors: To cut dressings or bandages.
Eyebrow tweezers: To pull out splinters.
Small compass: The size of a 20-cent coin, for direction finding.
Flag signals or Morse Code table: These icons are important must-haves. Write the codes down on paper and paste it on the back of the Survival Kit with clear tape.
Pencils and paper: Small pencils and paper.
Pain killers (for adults): Mostly for fever, headache or flu symptoms.
Cotton wool: Press it flat before putting in the box. Clean cotton wool should be used to stop bleeding. You can also dab it with antiseptic dressing and protect open wounds.
Bandage: For dressing wounds. Bandages should be long enough to cover a wound adequately.
Medicated oil: For abdominal pain and headache. Choose a fragrant preparation with stimulating and reviving effects.
Antiseptic cream: To kill germs and bacteria. To avoid side effects, do not use antiseptics with other medicines.
Medicated plasters: A few plasters for use when needed.
Mopiko: For insect bites.
Fine fishing line and tackle: For fishing for emergency good.
Salt tablets: Crush them and put in a plastic bag. To replenish body salt, add in food.
Map coordinate measurement device: To identify locations on a map.
Survival kit diagram: Make a sketch of where each item is located in the box. Seal it with completely with clear tape and place on top of everything else. This diagram will help you find items speedily.
One-dollar coins: To make emergency phone calls.
Personal information card: Write your name, address, telephone number and other important personal information on this card.
This Survival Kit is very helpful to hikers. Remember to replace and renew items regularly, so that medicines and other items are always effective.